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wine off-flavours kit


Wine flavour standards kit used to train professional tasters to recognize and scale the intensity of six off-flavours.

Use them to deliver up to 20 hours of taster training for ten people. Comes complete with presentation case and one set of wine flavour cards. AROXA™ wine flavour standards are: food grade | free from sensory impurities | extensively tested | safe to smell and taste. Unsure whether this kit is right for you? Don't forget about our 100% satisfaction guarantee.

Flavour cards

Flavour standard information

AROXA wine off-flavours kit
earn 40 points
£399.00

Grape-like, like lime blossom or putty”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label image2-aminoacetophenone
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

2-aminoacetophenone

1.25 mg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect grape-like characters in wine is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
1.25 mg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of 2-aminoacetophenone in wine is 1 - 40 µg / l.
Origins
2-Aminoacetophenone is a varietal character contributed through use of certain grape varieties (e.g. Vitis labsrusca). It is also formed from tryptophan present in wine. 2-Aminoacetophenone is associated with ageing of wine in the absence of lees, and use of new barrels.
Importance
2-Aminoacetophenone imparts a fruity, grape-like odour to wine, reminiscent of lime blossom, putty and taco shells depending on the concentration. It is associated with the atypical (premature) ageing of white wine - in such cases it t is often found together with sotolon. The key drivers of this fault are not fully understood though vine stress during drought conditions is known to be involved.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of 2-aminoacetophenone is 551-93-9.
Other names
  • 1-(2-aminophenyl)ethanone
  • 2-acetyl analine
  • ortho- acetyl aniline
  • 2-acetyl phenyl amine
  • ortho-aminoacetophenone
  • ortho-aminoacetyl benzene
  • 2-aminophenyl methyl ketone
  • ortho-aminophenyl methyl ketone
  • 1-(2-aminophenyl) ethanone
  • 1-(2-aminophenyl)ethanone
Remarks
When contributed to wine as a varietal character, 2-aminoacetophenone occurs together with methyl anthranilate to impart a distinctive fruity (foxy) character.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Rotten vegetable, like a sewage treatment plant”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imagedimethyl disulphide
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

dimethyl disulphide

300 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect the rotten vegetable sulphury character associated with dimethyl disulphide is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
300 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of dimethyl disulphide in wine is 30 - 300 µg / l.
Origins
Dimethyl disulphide is produced in wine through oxidation of methanethiol. Its presence is indicative of wine oxidation or ‘stressed’ fermentations. Exposure of wine to light can also lead to formation of dimethyl disulphide and other sulphur compounds.
Confusions
Dimethyl disulphide imparts a sulphury off-flavour to wine, reminiscent of rotten vegetables and asparagus. The compound can also arise during wine making via methanethiol from degradation of sulphur-containing fungicides applied to grapes.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for dimethyl disulphide is 624-92-0.
Other names
  • DMDS
  • dimethyl disulfide
  • dimethyl disulfane
  • 2,3-dithiabutane
  • methyl disulfide
  • (methyl dithio) methane
  • methyl dithiomethane
  • methyldithiomethane
  • methyldisulfanylmethane
Remarks
Wines packaged in clear glass are most sensitive to formation of light-induced off-flavours such as dimethyl disulphide.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

"Honey, like sweet mead or sherry”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageethyl phenylacetate
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

ethyl phenylacetate

900 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to evaluate honey flavour in wine is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
900 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of ethyl phenylacetate in wine is 150 - 300 µg / l.
Origins
Ethyl phenylacetate is produced by yeast from phenolic precursors during maturation of wine. Concentrations of ethyl phenylacetate may increase after packaging of wine as a result of non-enzymic reactions.
Importance
At low concentrations ethyl phenylacetate imparts a pleasant sweet, ‘honey-like’ note to wine. The presence of this note is associated with high quality white wines, such as Sauternes and Tokaji in vintage years. The compound has been confirmed as a cause of a sweet flavour detect in Italian Aglianico del Vulture reds.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of ethyl phenylacetate is 101-97-3.
Other names
  • benzene acetic acid ethyl ester
  • ethyl 2-phenyl ethanoate
  • ethyl 2-phenylacetate
  • ethyl alpha-toluate
  • ethyl benzene acetate
  • ethyl phenyl ethanoate
  • phenyl acetic acid ethyl ester
  • alpha- toluic acid ethyl ester
Remarks
Ethyl phenylacetate is also responsible for the sweet, honey-like note found in top class sweet white wines. This flavour is slow to develop on the palate.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Earthy, like green pepper”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label image2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine

50 ng per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine in wine is a s follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
50 ng per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine in wine is 10 - 16 ng / l.
Origins
2-Isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine is contributed by certain grapes to wine as a varietal character. Higher levels of methoxypyrazines are associated with under-ripe grapes and the presence of vine stem material during extraction of juice.
Importance
At low levels 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine imparts a desirable herbaceous, bell pepper, varietal character. The presence of too much 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine suggests insufficient maturity of the grapes. It is regarded as an off-flavour at higher concentrations or in some wine styles. Isobutyl methoxypyrazine is one of several methoxypyrazines found in grapes and wine.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine is 24683-00-9.
Other names
  • 2-methoxy-3-(2-methylpropyl)pyrazine
  • isobutyl methoxypyrazine
  • 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine
  • galbanum pyrazine
  • 2- methoxy-3-(2-methyl propyl) pyrazine
  • 2-methoxy-3-(2-methylpropyl)pyrazine
  • 2-methoxy-3-isobutyl pyrazine
  • 2-2-methyl propyl-3-methoxypyrazine
Remarks
Methoxypyrazines have remarkably low flavour thresholds. They represent a varietal characteristic in Sauvignon Blanc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and, sometimes, Merlot. They are regarded as a spoilage characteristic in red Bordeaux wines.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Isovaleric, like stale cheese or sweaty socks”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageisovaleric acid
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

isovaleric acid

7.5 mg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to assess isovaleric flavour in wine is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
7.5 mg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of isovaleric acid in wine is 1 - 2.5 mg / l.
Origins
Isovaleric acid is formed by contaminant Brettanomyces during maturation of wine or as a result of spoilage in bottle.
Importance
Isovaleric acid Imparts an odour of stale cheese or sweaty socks. Growth of Brettanomyces can add complexity to the product. Excessive growth leads to spoilage, imparting a distinctive and undesirable ‘Brett’ character.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for isovaleric acid is 503-74-2.
Other names
  • 3-methylbutanoic acid
  • isobutyl formic acid
  • delphinic acid
  • dephinic acid
  • 3-methyl butanoic acid
  • 3-methyl butyric acid
  • beta-methyl butyric acid
  • 3-methylbutanoic acid
  • isopentanoic acid
  • isopropyl acetic acid
  • isovalerianic acid
Remarks
When produced by Brettanomyces isovaleric acid often occurs together with other compounds, including acetic acid, ethyl acetate, and 4-ethyl phenol. A significant proportion of the population is relatively insensitive to this flavour.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Mercaptan, like drains or rotting garbage”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imagemethanethiol
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

methanethiol

23 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to evaluate methanethiol in wine is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
23 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of methanethiol in wine is 0.3 – 3 µg / l.
Origins
Methanethiol can be formed as a result of yeast autolysis at the end of fermentation or during maturation. Formation of high levels of methanethiol by yeast can be indicative of a deficiency of amino acids in the must and ‘stressed’ fermentations.
Importance
Methanethiol is a component of the sulphury flavour character of wine. It is found in all wines to a degree but is an off-flavour when present in excess. Supplementation of must with ammonium salts prior to fermentation can help control formation of mercaptans such as methanethiol in wine.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for methanethiol is 74-93-1.
Other names
  • methyl mercaptan
  • mercaptomethane
  • methane thiol
  • methyl sulfhydrate
  • thiomethanol
  • thiomethyl alcohol
Remarks
Methanethiol is the main thiol found in wine, the other being ethanethiol which can be formed in a chemical reaction between ethanol and H2S.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10