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wine essentials kit


Wine flavour standards kit used to train professional tasters to recognize and scale the intensity of eight essential wine flavour notes.

Use them to deliver up to 20 hours of taster training for ten people. Comes complete with presentation case and one set of wine flavour cards. AROXA™ wine flavour standards are: food grade | free from sensory impurities | extensively tested | safe to smell and taste. Unsure whether this kit is right for you? Don't forget about our 100% satisfaction guarantee.

Flavour cards

Flavour standard information

AROXA Essentials Wine Flavour Standards kit
earn 50 points
£499.00

Acetaldehyde, like emulsion paint or green apples”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageacetaldehyde
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

acetaldehyde

15 mg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect green apple flavour character in wine is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
15 mg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of acetaldehyde is 5 - 50 mg / l. The precise figure depends on the sulphur dioxide concentration in the wine.
Origins
Acetaldehyde is produced by yeast during fermentation. High levels in wine are indicative of fermentation problems, premature oxidation, or microbiological spoilage of must or wine.
Importance
Acetaldehyde is present in all wines. Low levels of acetaldehyde contribute to fruit character, cleanness and complexity. The compound can be an off-flavour at high concentrations when the note resembles emulsion paint.
CAS registry number
The CAS reference number for acetaldehyde is 75-07-0.
Other names
  • acetic aldehyde
  • ethanal
  • ethyl aldehyde
  • acetaldehyd
  • aldehyde acetique
  • aldeide acetica
  • octowy aldehyd
Remarks
Most acetaldehyde present in wine is combined with sulphur dioxide and therefore not odour-active.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
8

DMS, like sweetcorn or tomato sauce”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imagedimethyl sulphide
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

dimethyl sulphide

225 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect DMS character in wine is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
225 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of dimethyl sulphide in wine is 25 - 75 µg / l.
Origins
Dimethyl sulphide is formed during ageing of wine in ways that are not yet fully understood. The flavour can potentially arise as a result of microbiological growth during wine fermentation.
Importance
At low concentrations DMS can contribute to the body and mouthfeel of white wines. In red wines, it contributes to fruitiness, reminiscent of quince or truffles. At higher concentrations it may present itself as an off-flavour, imparting cooked corn, tomato or asparagus notes to affected wines.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of dimethyl suphide is 75-18-3.
Other names
  • DMS
  • dimethyl monosulfide
  • methylsulfanylmethane
  • methyl monosulfide
  • methane thiomethane
  • methyl sulfide
  • methyl thioether
  • methylsulfanylmethane
  • 2-thiapropane
  • thiobis(methane)
  • thiobismethane
Remarks
The perception of dimethyl sulphide is influenced by the presence of aromatic higher alcohols such as 2-phenylethanol which can be present at high concentrations in some wines.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Band aid, like a Brettanomyces-contaminated wine”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label image4-ethyl phenol
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

4-ethyl phenol

1.7 mg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect ethyl phenol and the signs of Brettanomyces activity in wine is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
1.7 mg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of 4-ethyl phenol in wine is 300 - 550 µg / l.
Origins
4-Ethyl phenol is a flavour defect of red wine produced by contaminant Brettanomyces (Dekkera) during barrel ageing, and occasionally after bottling. Wines which are low in sulphur dioxide are particularly sensitive to this problem.
Importance
Ethyl phenol Imparts an unpleasant band aid-like character, described as barnyard, medicinal or horsey. The flavour tends to mask more subtle varietal notes in the wine. Insufficient sulphuring of grapes and poor winery hygiene predispose wines to this problem.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of 4-ethyl phenol is 123-07-9.
Other names
  • p-ethyl phenol
  • para-ethyl phenol
  • 1-ethyl-4-hydroxybenzene
  • 4-ethylphenol
  • 1-hydroxy-4-ethyl benzene
  • 4-hydroxyethyl benzene
  • 4-hydroxyphenyl ethane
Remarks
Ethyl phenol is the characteristic odour of Brettanomyces contamination of wine. It occurs in combination with other Brettanomyces end-products including acetic acid, ethyl acetate, isovaleric acid, and ethyl guaiacol, which smells of smoked bacon or smoked cheese.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Smoky, like smoked fish or cheese”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageguaiacol
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

guaiacol

225 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to assess guaiacol in wine is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
225 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of guaiacol in wine is 20 - 75 µg / l.
Origins
Low levels of guaiacol are derived from ageing in new or intensely ‘toasted’ barrels. Guaiacol is a key indicator of the use of smoke-damaged grapes as raw material. Guaiacol accumulates in such grapes in a bound form.
Importance
Low levels of guaiacol contribute to wood-aged complexity. Higher levels of guaiacol are associated with use of smoke-damaged grapes as raw material. They impart an undesirable smoky / disinfectant-like note to affected wines. Guaiacol can also be responsible for some types of cork taint.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for guaiacol is 90-05-1.
Other names
  • 2-methoxyphenol
  • anastil
  • guajacol
  • guajol
  • guasol
  • 1-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzene
  • 2-hydroxyanisole
  • ortho-hydroxyanisole
  • 1-oxy-2- methoxybenzene
  • ortho- methoxyphenol
  • methyl catechol
  • ortho- methyl catechol
  • pyrocatechol methyl ester
  • pyrocatechol monomethyl ether
Remarks
The flavour of guaiacol tends to polarize consumers with respect to preference – they either love it or hate it.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

H2S, like boiled or rotten eggs”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imagehydrogen sulphide
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

hydrogen sulphide

60 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to evaluate hydrogen sulphide in wine is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
60 µg per capsule
Threshold
The favour threshold of hydrogen sulphide in wine is 1 - 20 µg / l.
Origins
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a normal metabolic product of yeast which is produced during fermentation. Excessive levels of H2S are caused by non-optimal concentrations of amino acids in the must and, occasionally, as a result of the use of elemental sulphur on vines.
Importance
H2S is present in all wines. It is an off-flavour at high concentrations when it can mask varietal characters. Supplementation of must with ammonium salts can help minimize formation of H2S. Use of oxidizing agents, micro-aeration and copper treatment can be used to eliminate any H2S formed.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for H2S is 7783-06-4.
Other names
  • H2S
  • hydrogen sulfide
  • dihydrogen monosulfide
  • dihydrogen monosulphide
  • hydrogen sulfuric acid
  • hydrogen sulphuric acid
  • sulfur hydride
Remarks
Hydrogen sulphide is often found in association with other sulphur compounds. Be careful not to overexpose yourself to samples with H2S. The more you look for it the less likely you are to find it.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Botrytis-infected, nutty, sweet and burnt”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imagesotolon
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

sotolon

120 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to evaluate Botrytis character in wine is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
120 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of sotolon in wine is 1 - 100 µg / l.
Origins
Sotolon is contributed to wine by grapes infected with Botrytis cinerea, so-called noble rot. It can also be derived in ways that are not yet fully understood in reactions which lead to premature ageing of some white wines.
Importance
Sotolon imparts a nutty, toasted aroma to wine, reminiscent of raw sugar, in the case of wines made with grapes which have undergone noble rot. In prematurely-aged white wine sotolon is often found together with 2-aminoacetophenone. In such wines the overall flavour impression can resemble polish.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of sotolon is 28664-35-9.
Other names
  • 4,5-Dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone
  • caramel lactone
  • dimethyl oxyfurone
  • 4,5- dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one
  • 2,3-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-5-one
  • fenugreek lactone
  • 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-penten-4-olide
  • 2- hydroxy-3,4-dimethyl-2-buten-1,4-olide
  • 3- hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl furan-2(5H)-one
  • 3- hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone
  • 3- hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-5H-furan-2-one
  • sotolone
  • sugar lactone
Remarks
This flavour standard contains a mixture of (R) and (S) stereoisomers. of sotolon The (S) form of sotolon contributes to the characteristic odour of prematurely aged wines.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Musty, like corked wine or a damp cellar”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label image2,4,6-trichloroanisole
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

2,4,6-trichloroanisole

580 ng per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to evaluate cork taint in wine is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
580 ng per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of 2,4,6 trichloranisole in wine is 5 - 100 ng / l.
Origins
2,4,6 Trichloranisole (TCA) is associated with use of contaminated corks bottle closures. It can also be picked up from the winery environment. Formation of TCA is linked to growth of mould on wooden structures, especially those to which chlorophenol insecticides have been applied.
Importance
2,4,6 Trichloranisole suppresses varietal character in wine when present at low concentrations. It imparts an unpleasant musty, mouldy odour to wine. Trichloranisole is derived from methylation of chlorophenols by moulds. This is one of the few flavours that can taint wine through airborne contamination during production.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for 2,4,6 trichloranisole is 87-40-1.
Other names
  • methyl 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl ether
  • 1,3,5-trichloro-2-methoxybenzene
  • TCA
Remarks
Cork taint is caused by a number of different chemicals. 2,4,6-Trichloranisole is one of several chloranisoles associated with such problems. It can be often detected at concentrations well below the published recognition flavour threshold.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Vanilla, like ice cream, or oak-aged wine”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imagevanillin
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

vanillin

4.0 mg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to assess vanilla flavour character in wine is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
4.0 mg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of vanillin in wine is 0.2 - 1.3 mg / l.
Origins
Vanilla notes in wine arise in several ways. Ageing on wood; the action of certain yeasts; and the breakdown of certain phenolic compounds during storage.
Importance
Vanillin is a positive flavour note in oaked wines. It imparts a creamy aroma and smooth mouthfeel when present at low levels in both red and white wines. It can also develop during aging of wines which are rich in certain phenolic compounds such as 4-vinyl guaiacol. Formation of vanillin during ageing on oak can be stimulated by malo-lactic bacteria.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of vanillin is 121-33-5.
Other names
  • 4-formyl-2-methoxyphenol
  • 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde
  • 4-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzaldehyde
  • 4-hydroxy-meta-anisaldehyde
  • para-hydroxy-meta-methoxybenzaldehyde
  • 2-methoxy-4-formyl phenol
  • 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde
  • methyl protocatechuic aldehyde
  • protocatechualdehyde-3-methyl ether
  • vanillaldehyde
  • vanillic aldehyde
  • para-vanillin
  • p- vanillin
Remarks
The amount of vanillin formed during barrel ageing is a function of the wine, choice of oak, and age of the wood.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10