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water taints kit


Water flavour standards kit used to train professional tasters to recognize and scale the intensity of 12 different taints.

Use them to deliver up to 20 hours of taster training for ten people. Comes complete with presentation case and one set of water flavour cards. AROXA™ water flavour standards are: food grade | free from sensory impurities | extensively tested | safe to smell and taste. Unsure whether this kit is right for you? Don't forget about our 100% satisfaction guarantee.

AROXA Water Taints kit
earn 85 points
£849.00

Almond, like bitter almonds or marzipan”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imagebenzaldehyde
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

benzaldehyde

1.5 mg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to assess almond flavour in water is to cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
1.5 mg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of benzaldehyde in water is 500 µg / l.
Origins
Benzaldehyde is derived from the breakdown of organic material and through the action of microorganisms, including Actinobacteria, Pseudomonads and algae.
Importance
Benzaldehyde imparts a pleasant, but nevertheless atypical, sweet odour to water, reminiscent of almonds or marzipan.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for benzaldehyde is 100-52-7.
Other names
  • benzene carbaldehyde
  • benzene carbonal
  • benzene carboxaldehyde
  • benzene methylal
  • benzoic aldehyde
  • benzoyl hydride
  • bitter almond oil
  • phenyl methanal
Remarks
In plant material, benzaldehyde is derived from enzymic breakdown of amygdalin.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Bromophenol, inky, like a museum or old TV set”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label image2-bromophenol
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

2-bromophenol

2.0 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect bromophenol taints in water is, without covering the glass,to swirl the sample to release the aroma before taking a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
2.0 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of 2-bromophenol in water is 50 ng / l.
Origins
Bromophenols are produced through reaction of phenolic compounds (for example from waters associated with peaty soils) and free bromine. They can also arise due to trace contamination of water with wood preservatives and fire retardants.
Importance
2-Bromophenol Imparts an unpleasant ‘tainted’ note to water. It is often described by consumers as ‘chemical’ or ‘contaminated’, even when present at low levels.
CAS registry number
THe CAS registry number of 2-bromophenol is 95-56-7.
Other names
  • bromophenol
  • o-bromophenol
  • ortho-bromophenol
Remarks
Water pH is important in determining the rate of formation of bromophenols. They can occasionally be produced by bacteria in combination with compounds such as guaiacol.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Tobacco-like, like grass, hay or dry wood”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageβ-cyclocitral
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

β-cyclocitral

440 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
Cyclocitral can be best detected in water in the following way. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
440 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of beta-cyclocitral in water is 150 ng / l.
Origins
Beta-Cyclocitral is formed by Cyanobacteria in reservoirs or water distribution systems. It is produced by both actively-growing organisms and through cell lysis or decomposition.
Importance
Cyclocitral imparts an aromatic odour to water, reminiscent of hay and dry wood at low concentrations, which becomes more tobacco-like and fruity at higher concentrations.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of beta-cyclocitral is 432-25-7.
Other names
  • beta-cyclocitral
  • 2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde
  • 2,6,6-trimethyl cyclohexene-1-carbaldehyde
  • 2,6,6-trimethyl-1(2)-cyclohexen-1-carboxaldehyde
  • 2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexene-1-carbaldehyde
Remarks
Beta-Cyclocitral is associated with cases of algal bloom in lakes and reservoirs. It may be found in tainted water, together with other carotenoid breakdown products such as beta-ionone.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

DMS, like sweetcorn or tomato sauce”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imagedimethyl sulphide
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

dimethyl sulphide

60 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to assess DMS flavour in water is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
60 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of dimethyl sulphide in water is 20 µg / l.
Origins
DMS is formed by bacteria growing in water. It can also arise from decomposition of algae in surface waters following an episode of algal bloom.
Importance
Dimethyl sulphide is associated with sulphury and ‘muddy’ odours notes. The presence of DMS can also be indicative of contamination of the water supply chain with faecal bacteria.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of dimethyl sulphide is 75-18-3.
Other names
  • DMS
  • dimethyl monosulfide
  • methylsulfanylmethane
  • methyl monosulfide
  • methane thiomethane
  • methyl sulfide
  • methyl thioether
  • methylsulfanylmethane
  • 2-thiapropane
  • thiobis(methane)
  • thiobismethane
Remarks
Indole and skatole may often be found in water in which the DMS has been produced by bacteria. 2-Pentanone may be present in water in which the DMS has been formed by algae.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Onion, like stagnant water or decaying vegetation”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imagedimethyl trisulphide
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

dimethyl trisulphide

330 ng per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to assess onion flavour in water is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
330 ng per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of dimethyl trisulphide in water is 110 ng / l.
Origins
Dimethyl trisulphide is formed through decay of grass and vegetation in reservoirs and lakes and by bacterial action. It can also arise from decomposition of algae following an episode of algal bloom.
Importance
Imparts an unpleasant ‘swampy’ odour to water. The intensity of the odour can be increased by the presence of other sulphur compounds.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for dimethyl trisulphide is 3658-80-8.
Other names
  • DMTS
  • 1,3-dimethyl trisulfane
  • methyl trisulfide
  • methyl trithiomethane
  • methylsulfanyldisulfanylmethane
  • methyltrithiomethane
  • 2,3,4-trithiapentane
  • methylsulfanyldisulfanylmethane
Remarks
Dimethyl trisulphide is often found in water in association with other sulphur compounds such as H2S and methanethiol.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Freshly cut grass, like hedge cuttings”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imagecis-3-hexenol
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

cis-3-hexenol

2.9 mg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
Grassy taints in water in water can be detected in the following way. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
2.9 mg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of cis-3-hexenol in water is 950 µg / l.
Origins
3-Hexenol is derived from leaching of chemicals from grass and vegetation, and from growth of algae. The compound is produced in plants through the action of the enzyme lipoxygenase.
Importance
cis-3-Hexenol imparts a pleasant, but nevertheless atypical, grassy note to water. The compound often occurs in association with cis-3-hexenyl acetate.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of cis-3-hexenol is 928-96-1.
Other names
  • (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol
  • cis-hex-3-en-1-ol
  • (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol
  • beta,gamma-hexen-1-ol
  • cis-3-hexen-1-ol
  • (Z)-3-hexenol
  • cis-3-hexenol
  • beta-gamma-hexenol
  • leaf alcohol
Remarks
cis-3-Hexenol is unstable at high pH values and does not survive well in alkaline waters.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

H2S, like boiled or rotten eggs”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imagehydrogen sulphide
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

hydrogen sulphide

18 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect hydrogen sulphide in water is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
18 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of hydrogen sulphide in water is 4 µg / l.
Origins
H2S is formed by anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria from sulphate, by Clostridium or Bacillus from sulphite or proteins, or by electrochemical action through corrosion of pipes in systems with very low flow rates.
Importance
H2S imparts an unpleasant sulphury note to water. H2S is easily oxidized to less odour-active species, so its presence is indicative of the failure of water treatment processes or post-treatment contamination.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of H2S is 7783-06-4.
Other names
  • H2S
  • hydrogen sulfide
  • dihydrogen monosulfide
  • dihydrogen monosulphide
  • hydrogen sulfuric acid
  • hydrogen sulphuric acid
  • sulfur hydride
Remarks
H2S is often found in association with other sulphur compounds such as methanethiol and dimethyl trisulphide. Be careful not to overexpose yourself to samples with H2S. The more you look for it the less likely you are to find it.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Indole, like pigs on a farm”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageindole
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

indole

60 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to for tasters to detect indole in water is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
60 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of indole in water is 20 µg / l.
Origins
Indole is formed by bacteria growing in water, or contributed, pre-formed, by ground water pollution.
Importance
In addition to contributing an unpleasant farmyard note, the presence of indole can also indicate contamination of the water supply chain with faecal bacteria.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for indole is 120-72-9.
Other names
  • 2,3-benzopyrrole
  • ketole
  • 1-benzazole
Remarks
DMS and skatole may often be found in water which contains indole. Big differences in perception of individual tasters result in about half regarding this flavour as a serious fault and half being oblivious to it.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Violets, like Turkish delight”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageβ-ionone
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

β-ionone

40 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect taints caused by beta-ionone in water is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
40 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of beta-ionone in water is 13 µg / l.
Origins
Beta-ionone is formed by algae or Cyanobacteria growing in water and through the biochemical decay of grass and vegetable matter in lakes and reservoirs.
Importance
Beta-ionone imparts a pleasant, but nevertheless atypical, sweet aromatic odour to water, reminiscent of violets. It is derived from the breakdown of plant-derived carotenoids.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of beta-ionone is 14901-07-6.
Other names
  • ionone
  • beta-cyclocitrylidene acetone
  • beta-irisone
  • 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl cyclohex-1-ene-1-yl) but-3-ene-2-one
  • 4,2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl-3-buten-2-one
  • 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one
  • 4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexenyl)-3-buten-2-one
  • (E)-4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexenyl)but-3-en-2-one
Remarks
Taints due to beta-ionone in water are associated with cases of algal bloom in lakes and reservoirs. This compound may occur together with other carotenoid breakdown products such as Β--cyclocitral
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Mercaptan, like drains or rotting garbage”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imagemethanethiol
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

methanethiol

1.0 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to assess mercaptan flavours in water is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
1.0 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of methanethiol in water is 330 ng / l.
Origins
Methanethiol is formed in water by anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria and Cyanobacteria or by decay of grass or algae in lakes or reservoirs. It can also arise from decomposition of algae following an episode of algal bloom.
Importance
Methanethiol imparts an unpleasant sulphury note to water. It is easily oxidized to less odour-active species, so its presence is indicative of the failure of water treatment processes or post-treatment contamination.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of methanethiol is 74-93-1.
Other names
  • methyl mercaptan
  • mercaptomethane
  • methane thiol
  • methyl sulfhydrate
  • thiomethanol
  • thiomethyl alcohol
Remarks
Methanethiol is often found in association with other sulphur compounds such as H2S and dimethyl trisulphide. Be careful not to overexpose yourself to samples with methanethiol. The more you look for it the less likely you are to find it.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Skatole, like animal faeces”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageskatole
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

skatole

2.0 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect faecal odour in water is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
2.0 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of skatole in water is 700 ng / l.
Origins
Skatole is formed by bacteria growing in water, or contributed, pre-formed, by ground water pollution. It is produced by bacteria from tryptophan.
Importance
In addition to contributing an unpleasant, somewhat nauseating, faecal note to water, the presence of skatole can also indicate contamination of the water supply chain with faecal bacteria.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for skatole is 83-34-1.
Other names
  • beta-methyl indole
  • β-methylindole
  • scatole
  • skatol
  • 3-methylindole
  • 3-MI
  • 3-methyl-1H-indole
  • 3-methyl-4,5-benzopyrrole
Remarks
Indole and DMS may often be found in water which contains skatole.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Musty, like corked wine or a damp cellar”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label image2,4,6-trichloroanisole
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

2,4,6-trichloroanisole

73 ng per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in water is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
73 ng per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in water is <10 - 30 ng / l.
Origins
2,4,6-Trichloroanisole is derived from methylation of chlorophenols by moulds or Actinobacteria, primarily in water distribution systems.
Importance
2,4,6-tTichloroanisole Imparts an unpleasant musty odour to water which is reminiscent of damp cellars or corked wine.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole is 87-40-1.
Other names
  • methyl 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl ether
  • 1,3,5-trichloro-2-methoxybenzene
  • TCA
Remarks
2,4,6-Trichloroanisole is one of several chloroanisoles that can taint water. The flavour produced by this compound is typical. This compound can be detected, but not recognized at concentrations well below the recognition flavour threshold.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10