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cider uno kit


Certified cider flavour standards kit used to train professional cider tasters to recognize and scale the intensity of ten different cider flavour notes.

Use these materials to deliver up to two hours of taster training for ten people, or as a personal flavour training kit. Each kit comes complete with presentation box and flavour cards and features for positive cider flavour characteristics, five cider off-flavours and one taint,. AROXA™ cider flavour standards are: food grade | free from sensory impurities | extensively tested | safe to smell and taste. Unsure whether this kit is right for you? Don't forget about our 100% satisfaction guarantee.

Flavour cards

Flavour standard information

AROXA Uno Cider Flavour Standards kit
earn 7 points
£99.00

Diacetyl, like butter, or butter popcorn”

  • Sub-product label image2,3-butanedione
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

2,3-butanedione

130 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect diacetyl character in cider is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the beer to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
130 µg per capsule
Threshold
40 µg / l in cider
Origins
Produced in cider from a precursor formed by yeast during fermentation. Diacetyl can also be formed by contaminant lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus and Pediococcus.
Importance
Diacetyl is a desirable flavour in some ciders, and an off-flavour in others. In traditional ciders it arises from secondary fermentation with malo-lactic bacteria. Such ciders have higher levels of 2,3-butanedione compared with those produced more rapidly, without a malo-lactic fermentation.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of 2,3-butanedione is 431-03-8.
Other names
  • diacetyl
  • biacetyl
  • 2,3-butane dione
  • butane-2,3-dione
  • 2,3-diketobutane
  • dimethyl diketone
  • dimethyl glyoxal
  • 2,3-dioxobutane
Remarks
2,3-Butanedione is one of two vicinal diketones found in cider. The ratio of butanedione to pentanedione can be used as an indicator of the source of the diacetyl flavour, since bacteria produce diacetyl and no pentanedione, while yeast produces the precursors of both diacetyl and pentanedione.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Chlorophenol, like antiseptic mouthwash”

  • Sub-product label image2,6-dichlorophenol
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

2,6-dichlorophenol

1.0 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
Te best way to detect chlorophenol taints in cider is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
1.0 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of 2,6,-dichlorophenol in cider is 300 ng / l.
Origins
Chlorophenols are formed by admixture of incompatible cleaning agents or by contact of cider with chlorinated water. Chlorophenolic taints occasionally arise through contamination of processing aids or packaging materials.
Importance
Chlorophenols cause taints in ciders. They are associated with a high degree of consumer rejection, even at low levels. They are often described by consumers as ‘chemical’, ‘antiseptic’ or ‘contaminated’.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for 2,6-dichlorophenol is 87-65-0.
Other names
  • 1-hydroxy-2,6-dichlorobenzene
  • 2,6-DCP
  • 2,6-dichlorfenol
Remarks
Chlorophenolic taints can be caused by several compounds of which 2,6-dichlorophenol is only one. The flavour produced by this compound is typical of the group.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Ethyl hexanoate, like apple or aniseed”

  • Sub-product label imageethyl hexanoate
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

ethyl hexanoate

600 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect estery notes from ethyl hexanoate in cider is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
600 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of ethyl hexanoate in cider is 200 µg / l.
Origins
Ethyl hexanoate is produced by yeast during fermentation. The amount formed depends on juice composition, yeast strain and fermentation conditions. Some wild yeasts produce high levels of ethyl hexanoate.
Importance
Ethyl hexanoate is an ester which is present in all ciders and a contributor to the complexity of apple flavour character. Concentrations of ethyl hexanoate vary from cider to cider.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for ethyl hexanoate is 123-66-0.
Other names
  • butyl acetic acid ethyl ester
  • capronic ether
  • ethyl caproate
  • ethyl hexoate
  • hexanoic acid ethyl ester
Remarks
Apple character in cider is dominated by ethyl-2-methyl butyrate. Excessive concentrations of ethyl hexanoate are indicative of poor yeast handling or excessive growth of wild yeasts.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Band aid, like a cider contaminated with Brettanomyces

  • Sub-product label image4-ethyl phenol
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

4-ethyl phenol

1.0 mg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to evaluate band aid, horsey flavour notes caused by growth of Brettanomyces in cider is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
1.0 mg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of 4-ethyl phenol in cider is 300 µg / l.
Origins
4-Ethyl phenol is produced by contaminant Brettanomyces (Dekkera) yeasts and, occasionally by lactic acid bacteria, during cider production. Ciders which are low in sulphur dioxide are particularly sensitive to growth of such microorganisms.
Importance
4-Ethyl phenol imparts an unpleasant band aid-like character to cider, described by some as ‘barny’ or ‘horsey’. At low levels the odour resembles that of leather. In traditional ciders, growth of Brettanomyces can add complexity to the product, helping to differentiate it from other ciders.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for 4-ethyl phenol is 123-07-9.
Other names
  • p-ethyl phenol
  • para-ethyl phenol
  • 1-ethyl-4-hydroxybenzene
  • 4-ethylphenol
  • 1-hydroxy-4-ethyl benzene
  • 4-hydroxyethyl benzene
  • 4-hydroxyphenyl ethane
Remarks
Ethyl phenol often occurs in combination with other compounds produced by Brettanomyces, including acetic acid, ethyl acetate, isovaleric acid, and other phenolic compounds such as ethyl guaiacol.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Smoky, like smoked fish or cheese”

  • Sub-product label imageguaiacol
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

guaiacol

100 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to evaluate smoky flavours in cider imparted by guaiacol is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
100 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of guaiacol in cider is 33 µg / l.
Origins
Low levels of guaiacol can be derived from oak ageing. Higher levels can be caused by growth of Alicyclobacillus prior to fermentation. This spore-forming organism converts vanillin in the juice into guaiacol.
Importance
Low levels of guaiacol in cider contribute to wood-aged complexity. Higher levels of guaiacol impart an undesirable smoky / disinfectant-like note to affected cider and the juice from which it is made. The flavour of guaiacol tends toward a more medicinal note when bromophenols, formed by the same contaminant bacteria, are also present.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of guaiacol is 90-05-1.
Other names
  • 2-methoxyphenol
  • anastil
  • guajacol
  • guajol
  • guasol
  • 1-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzene
  • 2-hydroxyanisole
  • ortho-hydroxyanisole
  • 1-oxy-2- methoxybenzene
  • ortho- methoxyphenol
  • methyl catechol
  • ortho- methyl catechol
  • pyrocatechol methyl ester
  • pyrocatechol monomethyl ether
Remarks
Flavour notes similar to guaiacol can arise due to smoke damage of raw materials and / or packaging materials. The flavour of guaiacol tends to polarize consumers with respect to preference – they either love it or hate it.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

H2S, like boiled or rotten eggs”

  • Sub-product label imagehydrogen sulphide
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

hydrogen sulphide

18 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect sulphury, sulphidic flavour notes in cider is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
18 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of hydrogen sulphide in cider is 4 µg / l.
Origins
Hydrogen sulphide is a normal fermentation product of yeast - excessive levels of H2S are caused by non-optimal concentrations of amino acids in juice. Hydrogen sulphide can be also be introduced through use of insufficiently-purified carbon dioxide for carbonation and by microbiological spoilage of cider.
Importance
Hydrogen sulphide is present in all ciders. Concentrations of H2S vary considerably from one cider to another. H2S is an off-flavour at high concentrations but contributes positively to cider flavour complexity when present in low amounts. Supplementation of juice with ammonium salts prior to fermentation can help minimize formation of H2S. Copper treatment of finished cider can eliminate any H2S formed.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for hydrogen sulphide is 7783-06-4.
Other names
  • H2S
  • hydrogen sulfide
  • dihydrogen monosulfide
  • dihydrogen monosulphide
  • hydrogen sulfuric acid
  • hydrogen sulphuric acid
  • sulfur hydride
Remarks
Hydrogen sulphide is often found in association with other sulphur compounds. Be careful not to overexpose yourself to samples with H2S when evaluating samples containing it. The more you look for it the less likely you are to find it.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Isovaleric, like stale cheese or sweaty socks”

  • Sub-product label imageIsovaleric acid
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

Isovaleric acid

3.0 mg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to evaluate cheesy flavours from isovaleric acid in cider is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
3.0 mg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of isovaleric acid in cider is 1 mg / l.
Origins
Isovaleric acid is formed by yeast from apple-derived fatty acids during fermentation. It can also be formed by contaminant Brettanomyces yeasts during maturation.
Importance
Isovaleric acid imparts an odour of stale cheese or sweaty socks to ciders. In traditional ciders, growth of Brettanomyces yeasts can add complexity to the product, differentiating it from other ciders.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for isovaleric acid is 503-74-2.
Other names
  • 3-methylbutanoic acid
  • isobutyl formic acid
  • delphinic acid
  • dephinic acid
  • 3-methyl butanoic acid
  • 3-methyl butyric acid
  • beta-methyl butyric acid
  • 3-methylbutanoic acid
  • isopentanoic acid
  • isopropyl acetic acid
  • isovalerianic acid
Remarks
When produced by Brettanomyces yeasts isovaleric acid often occurs together with other compounds, including acetic acid, ethyl acetate, and 4-ethyl phenol.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Mercaptan, like drains or rotting garbage”

  • Sub-product label imagemethanethiol
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

methanethiol

4.5 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect mercaptan odours in cider is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
4.5 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of methanethiol in cider is 1.5 µg / l.
Origins
Methanethiol arises in cider production through yeast autolysis at the end of fermentation or during maturation. Formation of high levels of mercaptans by yeast can be indicative of a deficiency of amino acids in the apple juice.
Importance
Methanethiol is a component of the sulphury flavour character of cider. It is found in all ciders to a degree. Methanethiol is an off-flavour when present in cider in excess. Supplementation of juice with ammonium salts prior to fermentation can help control formation of mercaptans in ciders.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for methanethiol is 74-93-1.
Other names
  • methyl mercaptan
  • mercaptomethane
  • methane thiol
  • methyl sulfhydrate
  • thiomethanol
  • thiomethyl alcohol
Remarks
Methanethiol is the main thiol found in cider. Other thiols give similar flavour notes which have subtle differences in relation to their flavour associations.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10