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cider off-flavours kit


Cider flavour standards kit used to train professional tasters to recognize and scale the intensity of eight off-flavours.

Use them to deliver up to 20 hours of taster training for ten people. Comes complete with presentation case and one set of cider flavour cards. AROXA™ cider flavour standards are: food grade | free from sensory impurities | extensively tested | safe to smell and taste. Unsure whether this kit is right for you? Don't forget about our 100% satisfaction guarantee.

Flavour cards

Flavour standard information

AROXA cider flavour standards kit - off-flavours
earn 50 points
£499.00

Butyric“, rancid, like baby vomit”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imagebutyric acid
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

butyric acid

9.0 mg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect butyric acid in cider is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
9.0 mg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of butyric acid in cider is 3 mg / l.
Origins
The origin of butyric acid in cider-making is unclear. However, it is likely that it is produced in apples of poor quality prior to pressing due to the action of contaminant bacteria, including Bacillus and Clostridium.
Importance
The odour of butyric acid is reminiscent of that of rancid butter or baby vomit. The flavour of affected ciders can be worsened by the presence of 2,3-butanedione, or improved by ethyl butyrate derived from metabolism of butyric acid by yeast during fermentation.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for butyric acid is 107-92-6.
Other names
  • butanoic acid
  • butanic acid
  • n-butanoic acid
  • 1-butyric acid
  • n-butyric acid
  • ethyl acetic acid
  • 1-propane carboxylic acid
  • propyl formic acid
Remarks
The intensity of butyric acid flavour in cider increases with decreasing cider pH value.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Honey, like sweet mead or sherry”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageethyl phenylacetate
  • ethylphenylacetate flavour standard capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

ethyl phenylacetate

480 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way for tasters to evaluate honey flavour in cider is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
480 µg per capsule
Threshold
160 µg / l in cider
Origins
Ethyl phenylacetate is produced in cider from phenolic precursor by yeast during maturation. Concentrations of ethyl phenylacetate may increase after packaging as a result of non-enzymic reactions.
Importance
At low concentrations ethyl phenylacetate imparts a pleasant sweet, ‘honey-like’ note to cider. At higher concentrations the flavour of ethyl phenylacetate is reminiscent of mead or sherry.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for ethyl phenylacetate is 101-97-3.
Other names
  • benzene acetic acid ethyl ester
  • ethyl 2-phenyl ethanoate
  • ethyl 2-phenylacetate
  • ethyl alpha-toluate
  • ethyl benzene acetate
  • ethyl phenyl ethanoate
  • phenyl acetic acid ethyl ester
  • alpha- toluic acid ethyl ester
Remarks
Ethyl phenylacetate is responsible for the sweet, honey-like note found in top class sweet white wines. This flavour is slow to develop on the palate.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Smoky, like smoked fish or cheese”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageguaiacol
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

guaiacol

100 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to evaluate smoky flavours in cider imparted by guaiacol is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
100 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of guaiacol in cider is 33 µg / l.
Origins
Low levels of guaiacol can be derived from oak ageing. Higher levels can be caused by growth of Alicyclobacillus prior to fermentation. This spore-forming organism converts vanillin in the juice into guaiacol.
Importance
Low levels of guaiacol in cider contribute to wood-aged complexity. Higher levels of guaiacol impart an undesirable smoky / disinfectant-like note to affected cider and the juice from which it is made. The flavour of guaiacol tends toward a more medicinal note when bromophenols, formed by the same contaminant bacteria, are also present.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of guaiacol is 90-05-1.
Other names
  • 2-methoxyphenol
  • anastil
  • guajacol
  • guajol
  • guasol
  • 1-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzene
  • 2-hydroxyanisole
  • ortho-hydroxyanisole
  • 1-oxy-2- methoxybenzene
  • ortho- methoxyphenol
  • methyl catechol
  • ortho- methyl catechol
  • pyrocatechol methyl ester
  • pyrocatechol monomethyl ether
Remarks
Flavour notes similar to guaiacol can arise due to smoke damage of raw materials and / or packaging materials. The flavour of guaiacol tends to polarize consumers with respect to preference – they either love it or hate it.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Isovaleric, like stale cheese or sweaty socks”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageIsovaleric acid
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

Isovaleric acid

3.0 mg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to evaluate cheesy flavours from isovaleric acid in cider is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
3.0 mg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of isovaleric acid in cider is 1 mg / l.
Origins
Isovaleric acid is formed by yeast from apple-derived fatty acids during fermentation. It can also be formed by contaminant Brettanomyces yeasts during maturation.
Importance
Isovaleric acid imparts an odour of stale cheese or sweaty socks to ciders. In traditional ciders, growth of Brettanomyces yeasts can add complexity to the product, differentiating it from other ciders.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for isovaleric acid is 503-74-2.
Other names
  • 3-methylbutanoic acid
  • isobutyl formic acid
  • delphinic acid
  • dephinic acid
  • 3-methyl butanoic acid
  • 3-methyl butyric acid
  • beta-methyl butyric acid
  • 3-methylbutanoic acid
  • isopentanoic acid
  • isopropyl acetic acid
  • isovalerianic acid
Remarks
When produced by Brettanomyces yeasts isovaleric acid often occurs together with other compounds, including acetic acid, ethyl acetate, and 4-ethyl phenol.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Rancid oil, like cod liver oil”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imagetrans,trans-2,4-heptadienal
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

trans,trans-2,4-heptadienal

450 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect rancid oil flavour notes in cider is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
450 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of 2,4,heptadienal is 150 µg / l.
Origins
2,4-Heptadienal is formed in apples and in juice during storage as a result of enzymic or non-enzymic lipid oxidation. Use of materials which have oxidized in this way prior to fermentation leads to development of this rancid oil flavour note in cider after packaging.
Importance
2,4-Heptadienal imparts a rancid oil note to cider, reminiscent of cod liver oil. At higher concentrations the odour can be perceived as fishy.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for 2,4,-heptadienal is 4313-03-5.
Other names
  • (2E,4E)-hepta-2,4-dienal
  • (2trans,4trans)- hepta-2,4-dienal
  • (E)-2,(E)-4-heptadien-1-al
  • (E,E)-2,4-heptadien-1-al
  • trans-2,trans-4-heptadien-1-al
  • trans,trans-2,4-heptadien-1-al
  • (E,E)-2,4- heptadienal
Remarks
Rancid oil notes can develop during storage of packaged cider, together with other lipid oxidation products. The flavour impact of 2,4-heptadienal is reduced as the sulphur dioxide concentration of the product is increased.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Kerosine, like petroleum or geranium”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label image1,3-pentadiene
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

1,3-pentadiene

300 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to evaluate kerosine-like off-flavours in cider caused by pentadiene is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
300 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of 1,3-pentadiene in cider is 100 µg / l.
Origins
1,3-Pentadiene is produced by contaminant microorganisms from sorbic acid. Many moulds and some yeasts are able to convert sorbic acid to 1,3-pentadiene.
Importance
Pentadiene imparts a potent ‘chemical’ taint to affected products. It is typically described as kerosene-like, with additional descriptors of plastic, paint, and geranium depending on the nature of the affected product.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for 1,3,-pentadiene is 504-60-9.
Other names
  • 1-methylbutadiene
  • 1,3-PD
  • (Z)-1,3-pentadiene
  • cis-piperylene
  • cis-1-methylbutadiene
  • cis-1,3-pentadiene
  • 1,cis-3-pentadiene
  • (3Z)-1,3-pentadiene
  • pentadiene-1,3,cis
  • (Z)-penta-1,3-diene
Remarks
Formation of this flavour note is somewhat ironic, since the very organisms that the sorbate preservatives are intended to inhibit are responsible for its formation.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Skatole, like animal faeces”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageskatole
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

skatole

4.0 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect faecal notes in cider arising from skatole is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
4.0 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of skatole in cider is 1.3 µg / l.
Origins
Skatole arises in cider through use of improperly cleaned or stored apples, or poor hygiene in the fermentation process. The source of the flavour note is bacterial metabolism of tryptophan.
Importance
Skatole imparts an unpleasant, somewhat nauseating, faecal note to affected products. Incidents involving this flavour are thankfully uncommon. The compound adds complexity to cider at very low concentrations.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for skatole is 83-34-1.
Other names
  • beta-methyl indole
  • β-methylindole
  • scatole
  • skatol
  • 3-methylindole
  • 3-MI
  • 3-methyl-1H-indole
  • 3-methyl-4,5-benzopyrrole
Remarks
Indole and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) may also be found in ciders in which a skatole note is present. Approximately half the population is relatively insensitive to skatole.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10