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cider essentials kit


Cider flavour standards kit used to train professional cider tasters to recognize and scale the intensity of eight essential cider flavour notes.

Use them to deliver up to 20 hours of taster training for ten people. Comes complete with presentation case and one set of cider flavour cards. AROXA™ cider flavour standards are: food grade | free from sensory impurities | extensively tested | safe to smell and taste. Unsure whether this kit is right for you? Don't forget about our 100% satisfaction guarantee.

Flavour cards

Flavour standard information

AROXA Essentials Cider Flavour Standards kit
earn 60 points
£599.99

Acetaldehyde, like emulsion paint or green apples”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageacetaldehyde
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

acetaldehyde

15 mg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to assess the flavour of acetaldehyde in cider is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
15 mg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of acetaldehyde in cider is 5 mg / l. The threshold increases as the sulphur dioxide concentration of the cider increases.
Origins
Acetaldehyde is produced by yeast during fermentation. High levels of acetaldehyde are indicative of fermentation problems, poor control of dissolved oxygen during maturation or packaging or spoilage by Zymomonas bacteria.
Importance
Acetaldehyde is present in all ciders. Low levels of acetaldehyde contribute to apple character, cleanness and complexity of cider. Acetaldehyde is an off-flavour at high concentrations when the note resembles emulsion paint.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of acetaldehyde is 75-07-0.
Other names
  • acetic aldehyde
  • ethanal
  • ethyl aldehyde
  • acetaldehyd
  • aldehyde acetique
  • aldeide acetica
  • octowy aldehyd
Remarks
Apple character in cider is dominated by ethyl-2-methyl butyrate. The flavour impact of acetaldehyde is reduced as the sulphur dioxide concentration of the product increases.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
8

Diacetyl, like butter, or butter popcorn”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label image2,3-butanedione
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

2,3-butanedione

130 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect diacetyl character in cider is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the beer to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
130 µg per capsule
Threshold
40 µg / l in cider
Origins
Produced in cider from a precursor formed by yeast during fermentation. Diacetyl can also be formed by contaminant lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus and Pediococcus.
Importance
Diacetyl is a desirable flavour in some ciders, and an off-flavour in others. In traditional ciders it arises from secondary fermentation with malo-lactic bacteria. Such ciders have higher levels of 2,3-butanedione compared with those produced more rapidly, without a malo-lactic fermentation.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of 2,3-butanedione is 431-03-8.
Other names
  • diacetyl
  • biacetyl
  • 2,3-butane dione
  • butane-2,3-dione
  • 2,3-diketobutane
  • dimethyl diketone
  • dimethyl glyoxal
  • 2,3-dioxobutane
Remarks
2,3-Butanedione is one of two vicinal diketones found in cider. The ratio of butanedione to pentanedione can be used as an indicator of the source of the diacetyl flavour, since bacteria produce diacetyl and no pentanedione, while yeast produces the precursors of both diacetyl and pentanedione.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Sour, like lemon juice, acidic”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

citric acid

457 mg

Technical specification

Amount of flavour per capsule
457 mg
CAS registry number
77-92-9
Other names
  • 3-carboxy-3-hydroxypentane-1,5-dioic acid
  • citretten
  • 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propane tricarboxylic acid
  • 2-hydroxypropane tricarboxylic acid
  • 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid
  • 2-hydroxytricarballylic acid
  • beta-hydroxytricarboxylic acid
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Ethyl acetate, like nail varnish remover”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageethyl acetate
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

ethyl acetate

15 mg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to evaluate solvent-like estery flavours in cider caused by ethyl acetate is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
15 mg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of ethyl acetate in cider is 10 mg / l.
Origins
Ethyl acetate is roduced by yeast during fermentation. The amount of ethyl acetate formed depends on juice composition, yeast strain and fermentation conditions. Some wild yeasts produce very high levels of ethyl acetate.
Importance
Ethyl acetate is present in all ciders, and the ester found in greatest amounts in cider. It imparts a solvent-like note to cider which at low levels contributes to flavour balance. Excessive levels of acetic acid, in combination with the presence of acetic acid, contribute to ‘volatile acidity’.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for ethyl acetate is 141-78-6.
Other names
  • acetic acid ethyl ester
  • acetic ether
  • acetoxyethane
  • methyl trithiomethane
  • methylsulfanyldisulfanylmethane
  • methyltrithiomethane
  • 2,3,4-trithiapentane
  • methylsulfanyldisulfanylmethane
Remarks
Use two capsules of this flavour standard in each litre of cider to achieve a similar flavour intensity to that achieved using other flavour standards.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
8

Ethyl hexanoate, like apple or aniseed”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageethyl hexanoate
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

ethyl hexanoate

600 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect estery notes from ethyl hexanoate in cider is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
600 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of ethyl hexanoate in cider is 200 µg / l.
Origins
Ethyl hexanoate is produced by yeast during fermentation. The amount formed depends on juice composition, yeast strain and fermentation conditions. Some wild yeasts produce high levels of ethyl hexanoate.
Importance
Ethyl hexanoate is an ester which is present in all ciders and a contributor to the complexity of apple flavour character. Concentrations of ethyl hexanoate vary from cider to cider.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for ethyl hexanoate is 123-66-0.
Other names
  • butyl acetic acid ethyl ester
  • capronic ether
  • ethyl caproate
  • ethyl hexoate
  • hexanoic acid ethyl ester
Remarks
Apple character in cider is dominated by ethyl-2-methyl butyrate. Excessive concentrations of ethyl hexanoate are indicative of poor yeast handling or excessive growth of wild yeasts.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Band aid, like a cider contaminated with Brettanomyces

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label image4-ethyl phenol
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

4-ethyl phenol

1.0 mg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to evaluate band aid, horsey flavour notes caused by growth of Brettanomyces in cider is as follows. Cover the sample with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
1.0 mg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of 4-ethyl phenol in cider is 300 µg / l.
Origins
4-Ethyl phenol is produced by contaminant Brettanomyces (Dekkera) yeasts and, occasionally by lactic acid bacteria, during cider production. Ciders which are low in sulphur dioxide are particularly sensitive to growth of such microorganisms.
Importance
4-Ethyl phenol imparts an unpleasant band aid-like character to cider, described by some as ‘barny’ or ‘horsey’. At low levels the odour resembles that of leather. In traditional ciders, growth of Brettanomyces can add complexity to the product, helping to differentiate it from other ciders.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for 4-ethyl phenol is 123-07-9.
Other names
  • p-ethyl phenol
  • para-ethyl phenol
  • 1-ethyl-4-hydroxybenzene
  • 4-ethylphenol
  • 1-hydroxy-4-ethyl benzene
  • 4-hydroxyethyl benzene
  • 4-hydroxyphenyl ethane
Remarks
Ethyl phenol often occurs in combination with other compounds produced by Brettanomyces, including acetic acid, ethyl acetate, isovaleric acid, and other phenolic compounds such as ethyl guaiacol.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

H2S, like boiled or rotten eggs”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imagehydrogen sulphide
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

hydrogen sulphide

18 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect sulphury, sulphidic flavour notes in cider is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
18 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of hydrogen sulphide in cider is 4 µg / l.
Origins
Hydrogen sulphide is a normal fermentation product of yeast - excessive levels of H2S are caused by non-optimal concentrations of amino acids in juice. Hydrogen sulphide can be also be introduced through use of insufficiently-purified carbon dioxide for carbonation and by microbiological spoilage of cider.
Importance
Hydrogen sulphide is present in all ciders. Concentrations of H2S vary considerably from one cider to another. H2S is an off-flavour at high concentrations but contributes positively to cider flavour complexity when present in low amounts. Supplementation of juice with ammonium salts prior to fermentation can help minimize formation of H2S. Copper treatment of finished cider can eliminate any H2S formed.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for hydrogen sulphide is 7783-06-4.
Other names
  • H2S
  • hydrogen sulfide
  • dihydrogen monosulfide
  • dihydrogen monosulphide
  • hydrogen sulfuric acid
  • hydrogen sulphuric acid
  • sulfur hydride
Remarks
Hydrogen sulphide is often found in association with other sulphur compounds. Be careful not to overexpose yourself to samples with H2S when evaluating samples containing it. The more you look for it the less likely you are to find it.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10

Mercaptan, like drains or rotting garbage”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imagemethanethiol
  • Number of capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

methanethiol

4.5 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect mercaptan odours in cider is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the sample to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
4.5 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of methanethiol in cider is 1.5 µg / l.
Origins
Methanethiol arises in cider production through yeast autolysis at the end of fermentation or during maturation. Formation of high levels of mercaptans by yeast can be indicative of a deficiency of amino acids in the apple juice.
Importance
Methanethiol is a component of the sulphury flavour character of cider. It is found in all ciders to a degree. Methanethiol is an off-flavour when present in cider in excess. Supplementation of juice with ammonium salts prior to fermentation can help control formation of mercaptans in ciders.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for methanethiol is 74-93-1.
Other names
  • methyl mercaptan
  • mercaptomethane
  • methane thiol
  • methyl sulfhydrate
  • thiomethanol
  • thiomethyl alcohol
Remarks
Methanethiol is the main thiol found in cider. Other thiols give similar flavour notes which have subtle differences in relation to their flavour associations.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10