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beer essentials kit


Beer flavour standards kit used to train professional beer tasters to recognize and scale the intensity of 12 essential beer flavour notes.

Use them to deliver up to 20 hours of taster training for ten people. Comes complete with presentation case and one set of beer flavour cards. AROXA™ beer flavour standards are: food grade | free from sensory impurities | extensively tested | safe to smell and taste. Unsure whether this kit is right for you? Don't forget about our 100% satisfaction guarantee.

AROXA Essentials Beer Flavour Standards kit
earn 95 points
£949.00

Acetaldehyde, like emulsion paint or green apples”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageacetaldehyde
  • acetaldehyde beer flavour standard capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

acetaldehyde

15 mg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect acetaldehyde flavours notes in beer is as follows. Cover the beer with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
15 mg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of acetaldehyde in beer is 5 mg / l. The presence of sulphur dioxide increases the flavour threshold of acetaldehyde.
Origins
Acetaldehyde is reduced by yeast during fermentation as the penultimate step in production of ethanol from wort sugars. Its presence is indicative of fermentation problems and poor control of dissolved oxygen in packaging.
Confusions

Tasters can confuse acetaldehyde with the following flavours in beer

  • Ethyl hexanoate
  • 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole
  • cis-3-Hexenol
Importance
Acetaldehyde is present in all beers. It is a characteristic flavour of some beer styles, eg Bière de Garde. Acetaldehyde is an off-flavour at high concentrations in beer.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of acetaldehyde is 75-07-0.
Other names
  • acetic aldehyde
  • ethanal
  • ethyl aldehyde
  • acetaldehyd
  • aldehyde acetique
  • aldeide acetica
  • octowy aldehyd
Remarks
The flavour impact of acetaldehyde is influenced by the sulphur dioxide concentration in the beer.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
8
Legal notices
This product is protected by the following trade marks and patents:
  • US Patent no. D679900
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009937574
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009856527
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345057
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345056

Malty-biscuity, like pale barley malt or malt dust”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label image2-acetyl pyridine
  • acetyl pyridine flavoour standard capsuleNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

2-acetyl pyridine

180 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect malty flavour notes in beer is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the beer to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
180 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of 2-acetyl pyridine in beer is 60 µg / l.
Origins
2-Acetyl pyridine is one of many compounds formed during malt kilning. Such flavours become more prominent in beers which have been contaminated with caustic cleaning agents.
Confusions

2-Acetyl pyridine can be confused by tasters with the following flavours

  • Sodium bicarbonate
  • Isobutyraldehyde
  • Benzaldehyde
Importance
2-Acetyl pyridine is present in all beers made with barley malt. It is a desirable component of the flavour of many lagers, ales and stouts. It is a characteristic flavour, present together with many other Maillard reaction products, in many lagers and ales.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of 2-acetyl pyridine is 1122-62-9.
Other names
  • 2-acetopyridine
  • 2-pyridyl methyl ketone
  • 1-(2-pyridinyl) ethanone
  • methyl-2-pyridyl ketone
  • popcorn pyridine
  • 1-pyridin-2-ylethanone
Remarks
2-Acetyl pyridine is one of many similar compounds which are responsible for the range of malty characters found in beer.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10
Legal notices
This product is protected by the following trade marks and patents:
  • US Patent no. D679900
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009937574
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009856527
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345057
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345056

Diacetyl, like butter, or butter popcorn”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label image2,3-butanedione
  • icon for 2,3-butanedione beer flavour standard capsulesNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

2,3-butanedione

130 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect diacetyl flavour is to swirl the beer, without covering the glass, to release the aroma then take a single short sniff. Some people have difficulty detecting this compound on aroma and can best pick it up by a 'slickness' in the mouth.
Amount of flavour per capsule
130 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of 2,3-butanedione in beer is 10 – 40 µg / l. The precise concentration varies with beer type.
Origins
Diacetyl is produced in beer from a precursor (alpha-acetolactate) formed by brewer's yeast during fermentation. It can also be formed by contaminant lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Pediococcus spp.
Confusions

Diacetyl is sometimes confused with the following flavours in beer:


  • Butyric acid
  • Vanillin
  • Isobutyraldehyde
Importance
Diacetyl is a desirable flavour in some ales, stouts and lagers, eg Pilsner. It is considered an off-flavour in other lager beers. Considerable efforts are made by breweries to tightly control the concentration of 2,3-butanedione in beer.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for 2,3-butanedione is 431-03-8
Other names
Alternative names for 2,3-butanedione include:
  • diacetyl
  • biacetyl
  • 2,3-butane dione
  • butane-2,3-dione
  • 2,3-diketobutane
  • dimethyl diketone
  • dimethyl glyoxal
  • 2,3-dioxobutane
Remarks
2,3-Butanedione is one of two vicinal diketones found in beer. The ratio of diacetyl to pentanedione concentrations can be used as an indicator of bacterial contamination in beer. Information on this page has been compiled by Bill Simpson.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10
Legal notices
This product is protected by the following trade marks and patents:
  • US Patent no. D679900
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009937574
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009856527
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345057
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345056

DMS, like sweetcorn or tomato sauce”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imagedimethyl sulphide
  • capsule for dimethyl sulphide beer flavour standardNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

dimethyl sulphide

150 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to evaluate dimethyl sulphide in beer is to swirl the sample to release the aroma and then take a single short sniff.
Amount of flavour per capsule
150 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of DMS in beer is 30 - 50 µg / l.
Origins
Dimethyl sulphide is formed from malt-derived precursors (S-methyl methionine and dimethyl sulphoxide), primarily during wort production and – to a lesser extent – during fermentation.
Confusions

Dimethyl sulphide is sometimes confused with the following flavours in beer

  • Methyl thioacetate
  • Ethanethiol
  • Dimethyl trisulphide
Importance
DMS is a desirable flavour in some pale lager beers and ales and an off-flavour in other beers. Excessive levels of DMS are indicative of growth of contaminant bacteria during fermentation.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for DMS is 75-18-3
Other names
  • DMS
  • dimethyl monosulfide
  • methylsulfanylmethane
  • methyl monosulfide
  • methane thiomethane
  • methyl sulfide
  • methyl thioether
  • methylsulfanylmethane
  • 2-thiapropane
  • thiobis(methane)
  • thiobismethane
Remarks
The perception of dimethyl sulphide is influenced by the presence of aromatic higher alcohols such as 2-phenylethanol in beer. When significant concentrations of 2-phenylethanol are present in beer, for example due to the use of certain yeast strains or fermentation conditions, perception of DMS is suppressed.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10
Legal notices
This product is protected by the following trade marks and patents:
  • US Patent no. D679900
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009937574
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009856527
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345057
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345056

Ethyl acetate, like nail varnish remover”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageethyl acetate
  • capsule for ethyl acetate beer flavour standardNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

ethyl acetate

15 mg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to taste ethyl acetate in beer is as follow. Cover the beer with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
15 mg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of ethyl acetate in beer is 5 - 10 mg / l.
Origins
Ethyl acetate is produced by both ale and lager yeasts in the brewery during fermentation. The amount of ethyl acetate produced depends on several variables, including wort composition, yeast strain and fermentation conditions. Wild yeasts produce high levels of ethyl acetate.
Confusions

Ethyl acetate can be confused by tasters with the following flavours in beer

  • Acetaldehyde
  • Ethyl hexanoate
  • Ethyl butyrate
Importance
Ethyl acetate is present in all beers, and is the ester found in greatest amounts in beer. Its high flavour threshold means that it makes a bigger contribution to the flavour of ales - and especially strong ales - than it does to lagers.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of ethyl acetate is 141-78-6.
Other names
  • acetic acid ethyl ester
  • acetic ether
  • acetoxyethane
  • methyl trithiomethane
  • methylsulfanyldisulfanylmethane
  • methyltrithiomethane
  • 2,3,4-trithiapentane
  • methylsulfanyldisulfanylmethane
Remarks
Use two capsules of ethyl acetate flavour standard in each litre of beer to achieve a similar flavour intensity to that achieved using other flavour standards.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
8
Legal notices
This product is protected by the following trade marks and patents:
  • US Patent no. D679900
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009937574
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009856527
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345057
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345056

Ethyl hexanoate, like apple or aniseed”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageethyl hexanoate
  • capsule for ethyl hexanoate beer flavour standardNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

ethyl hexanoate

600 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to assess the flavour of ethyl hexanoate in beer is as follows. Cover the beer with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
600 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of ethyl hexanoate in beer is 200 µg / l.
Origins
Ethyl hexanoate is produced by both ale and lager yeast during fermentation. The amount of ethyl hexanoate produced during fermentation depends on many variables, including wort composition, yeast strain and fermentation conditions.
Confusions

Tasters can confuse the following flavours with ethyl hexanoate in beer

  • Acetaldehyde
  • Ethyl butyrate
  • Geraniol
Importance
Ethyl hexanoate is an ester which is present in all beers. Concentrations of ethyl hexanoate vary from beer to beer. Ethyl hexanoate is a key flavour impact character in some lagers and ales.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of ethyl hexanoate 123-66-0.
Other names
  • butyl acetic acid ethyl ester
  • capronic ether
  • ethyl caproate
  • ethyl hexoate
  • hexanoic acid ethyl ester
Remarks
Excessive concentrations of ethyl hexanoate are indicative of poor yeast handling in the brewery.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10
Legal notices
This product is protected by the following trade marks and patents:
  • US Patent no. D679900
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009937574
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009856527
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345057
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345056

Metallic, like ink or blood”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageferrous sulphate
  • metallic beer flavour standard capsuleNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

ferrous sulphate

8.2 mg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect metallic flavour notes in beer is as follows. Take a little beer into your mouth. Move it around with your tongue for a few seconds then swallow it. To confirm, rub a little of the beer onto the back of your hand and check for metallic odour.
Amount of flavour per capsule
8.2 mg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of ferrous sulphate in beer is 2.7 mg / l.
Origins
Metallic taints are erived from contamination of beer with metal ions, either from brewing raw materials or from corrosion of brewery plant. Metallic odours can also be produced by lipid oxidation.
Confusions

Metallic taints are confused by professional tasters with the following flavour notes

  • Sulphitic
  • Citric acid
  • trans-2-Nonenal
Importance
Taint and occasionally off-flavour in beer. Primarily affects beer mouthfeel but occasionally beer odour can also be affected.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of ferrous sulphate is 7782-63-0.
Other names
  • ferrous sulfate
  • iron(2+) sulfate
  • iron(2+) sulphate
  • ferrous sulphate heptahydrate
  • ferrous sulfate heptahydrate
  • iron(2+) sulfate heptahydrate
  • iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate
  • iron(II) sulphate heptahydrate
Remarks
Copper, manganese and tin can also generate metallic notes in beer. Such metals stabilize beer foam, giving rise to an improved foam appearance. They also shorten beer flavour life by catalysing oxidation of beer..
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10
Legal notices
This product is protected by the following trade marks and patents:
  • US Patent no. D679900
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009937574
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009856527
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345057
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345056

Hop oil, like hoppy ale”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imagehop oil extract
  • hop oil beer flavour standard capsuleNumber of capsules

hop oil extract

1.25 mg per capsule.

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect hop oil flavour in beer is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the beer to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
1.25 mg per capsule.
Threshold
The flavour threshold of hop oil in beer is 250 µg / l. The exact threshold varies with the composition of the oil, which is determined by many factors, including the hop variety and growing conditions.
Origins
The character is contributed to beer by addition of hop oils in the brewhouse, fermentation or post-fermentation. The intensity and nature of the hop oil character depends on the hop products and brewing practices.
Confusions

Professional beer tasters can confuse hop oil character with the following flavours

  • Kettle hop extract
  • Geraniol
  • 4-Vinyl guaiacol
Importance
Positive flavour character imparted to specialty ales by addition of hop oil. Different hop varieties in combination with different beers give rise to a variety of hop flavour characteristics.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for hop oil is 8007-04-3.
Other names
  • hop oil
  • target hop extract
  • hop essential oil
Remarks
This hop oil material is not a reference standard in the strictest sense, since the flavour is derived from a complex natural mixture of many compounds.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10
Legal notices
This product is protected by the following trade marks and patents:
  • US Patent no. D679900
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009937574
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009856527
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345057
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345056

Isoamyl acetate, like bananas or pear drops”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imageisoamyl acetate
  • capsule for isoamyl acetate beer flavour standardNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

isoamyl acetate

3.5 mg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect isoamyl acetate flavour in beer is to swirl the beer, covering the glass with your hand to release the aroma, before taking a single long sniff. You can also evaluate the flavour retronasally.
Amount of flavour per capsule
3.5 mg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of isoamyl acetate in beer is 1.1 mg / l.
Origins
Isoamyl acetate is produced by both ale and lager yeast during fermentation. The amount of isoamyl acetate produced depends on wort composition, yeast strain and fermentation conditions.
Confusions

Isoamyl acetate is sometimes confused with the following flavours in beer:

  • Ethyl hexanoate
  • Ethyl acetate
  • Ethyl butyrate
Importance
Isoamyl acetate is present in all beers. Concentrations vary considerably from beer to beer. It is a key flavour impact character in some lagers and ales and a signature flavour character in German-style wheat beer.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for isoamyl acetate is 123-92-2
Other names
Alternative names for isoamyl acetate include:
  • 3-methylbutyl acetate
  • acetic acid 3-methyl butyl ester
  • acetic acid isopentyl ester
  • isoamyl ethanoate
  • 3-methyl butyl acetate
  • beta-methyl butyl acetate
  • 2-methyl butyl ethanoate
  • 3-methyl butyl ethanoate
  • 3-methyl-1-butanol acetate
  • 3-methyl-1-butyl acetate
  • 3-methylbutyl acetate
  • isopentyl acetate
  • isopentyl alcohol acetate
  • isopentyl ethanoate
Remarks
Isoamyl acetate disappears during ageing of beer in pack, contributing to a loss of freshness.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10
Legal notices
This product is protected by the following trade marks and patents:
  • US Patent no. D679900
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009937574
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009856527
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345057
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345056

Mercaptan, like drains or rotting garbage”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label imagemethanethiol
  • Capsule for mercaptan beer flavour standardNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

methanethiol

4.5 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way for tasters to evaluate mercaptan flavours in beer is as follows. Without covering the glass, swirl the beer to release the aroma. Take a single short sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
4.5 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of methanethiol in beer is 1.5 µg / l.
Origins
Methanethiol arises through yeast autolysis at the end of fermentation or during maturation. It can also be contributed to beer by dry hopping and by growth of bacteria in beer.
Confusions

Professional beer tasters can confuse methanethiol with the following flavours in beer>

  • Ethanethiol
  • Dimethyl trisulphide
  • Sulphur dioxide
Importance
Methanethiol is a component of the sulphury flavour character of beer. It is found in all beer styles to a degree. Methanethiol and other thiols are off-flavours when present in excess.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of methanethiol is 74-93-1.
Other names
  • methyl mercaptan
  • mercaptomethane
  • methane thiol
  • methyl sulfhydrate
  • thiomethanol
  • thiomethyl alcohol
Remarks
Methanethiol is the main thiol found in beer. Other thiols give similar flavour notes which have subtle differences in relation to their flavour associations.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10
Legal notices
This product is protected by the following trade marks and patents:
  • US Patent no. D679900
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009937574
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009856527
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345057
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345056

Lightstruck, like a skunk or freshly-brewed coffee”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label image3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol
  • Capsule for lightstruck beer flavour standardNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol

100 ng per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
Lightstruck flavour is best detected by smelling the beer at a distance. Hold the glass at arm’s length and take short sniffs to prevent the risk of adaptation.
Amount of flavour per capsule
100 ng per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of MBT is 4 – 30 ng / l in beer.
Origins
3-Methyl-3-butene-1-thiol is formed in beer as a result of exposure to daylight or artificial light. This initiates a reaction involving hop bitter acids, vitamins and sulphur compounds. Small amounts are also formed in beer production.
Confusions

MBT is sometimes confused with the following flavours in beer

  • Sulphur dioxide
  • cis-3-Hexenol
  • Ethanethiol
Importance
Lightstruck character is an off-flavour associated with exposure to light of beer packaged in clear or green glass. Consumers are very tolerant of this off-flavour. Many successful beers contain MBT at the point of consumption.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number for MBT is 5287-45-6.
Other names
  • lightstruck
  • sunstruck
  • prenyl mercaptan
  • 3-methyl but-2-ene-1-thiol
  • methyl butene thiol
  • 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol
  • 3-methyl-2-butenyl mercaptan
  • 3-methylbut-2-ene-1-thiol
  • prenyl thiol
Remarks
Beers which have been bittered with chemically-modified hop extracts do not develop lightstruck flavour character.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10
Legal notices
This product is protected by the following trade marks and patents:
  • US Patent no. D679900
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009937574
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009856527
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345057
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345056

Phenolic, like cloves or wheat beer”

Number of capsules x 1
Sub-product image
  • Sub-product label image4-vinyl guaiacol
  • Capsule for 4-vinyl guaiacol beer flavour standardNumber of capsules
  • Chemical structure

4-vinyl guaiacol

900 µg per capsule

Technical specification

Assessment
The best way to detect 4-vinyl guaiacol in beer is as follows. Cover the beer with your hand and swirl the glass to release the aroma. Remove your hand and take a single long sniff. Repeat as necessary.
Amount of flavour per capsule
900 µg per capsule
Threshold
The flavour threshold of 4-vinyl guaiacol in beer is 300 µg / l.
Origins
Low levels of 4-vinyl guaiacol are produced through a combination of enzymic and non-enzymic process during wort production. High levels of 4-vinyl guaiacol result from the use of speciality yeast strains or contamination of beer with wild yeasts.
Confusions

4-Vinyl guaiacol is sometimes confused with

  • Isobutyraldehyde
  • Sulphur dioxide
  • Vanillin
Importance
4-Vinyl guaiacol is a key flavour impact character in some ales and stouts. It is regarded as an off-flavour in lager beers when it is associated with a moderate degree of consumer rejection. 4-Vinyl guaiacol is a signature flavour character in German-style wheat beer, together with the ester isoamyl acetate.
CAS registry number
The CAS registry number of 4-vinyl guaiacol is 7786-61-0.
Other names
  • 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol
  • 4-ethenyl-2-methoxyphenol
  • 2-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene
  • 4-hydroxy-3-methoxystyrene
  • 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyvinyl benzene
  • 2-methoxy-4-vinyl phenol
  • varamol
  • para-vinyl catechol-ortho-methyl ether
  • p-vinyl guaiacol
  • vinylguaiacol
  • para-vinyl guaiacol
Remarks
4-Vinyl guaiacol (4-VG) is produced by yeasts which possess the phenyl acrylate decarboxylase (PAD) gene. The enzyme associated with this gene produces 4-VG from barley-derived ferulic acid.
Threshold distribution
Graph
Capsules per pot
10
Legal notices
This product is protected by the following trade marks and patents:
  • US Patent no. D679900
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009937574
  • European Community Trade Mark
    Registration no. 009856527
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345057
  • US Trade Mark Registration no. 4345056